The largest city in Latvia is Riga, the second largest city is Daugavpils and the third largest city is Liepaja. Latvia is much known for its bathhouse tradition which started its journey in the domain of … [145][146][147] It is part of the Nordic Transition Support Unit (NTSU), which renders joint force contributions in support of Afghan security structures ahead of the withdrawal of Nordic and Baltic ISAF forces in 2014. Temperature decreases not sharp from 50°F to 32°F day by day during all this period. As a result, Latvia is running a biocapacity reserve. Selonia, a part of Zemgale, is sometimes considered culturally distinct region, but it is not part of any formal division. In 2012, 45.0% of births were to unmarried women. The December weather guide for Latvia shows long term weather averages processed from data supplied by CRU (University of East Anglia), the Met Office & the Netherlands Meteorological Institute. Under this division Riga region includes large parts of what traditionally is considered Vidzeme, Courland, and Zemgale. Since then, it has been amended and is still in effect in Latvia today. Latvian food is generally quite fatty, and uses few spices. Despite foreign rule from the 13th to 20th centuries, the Latvian nation maintained its identity throughout the generations via the language and musical traditions. [97] Nationally protected areas account for 12,790 km2 (4,940 sq mi) or around 20% of Latvia's total land area. Heavy snowfall or even snowstorms are also possible on some days; the yearly average number of days with snow is about days. Spring and autumn bring fairly mild weather. There are 37 foreign embassies and 11 international organisations in Latvia's capital Riga. Weather Today Weather Hourly 14 Day Forecast Yesterday/Past Weather Climate (Averages) Currently: 32 °F. and Sovieticised. [81] The government denationalized private property confiscated by the Soviets, returning it or compensating the owners for it, and privatized most state-owned industries, reintroducing the prewar currency. There are 2,256 lakes that are bigger than 1 ha (2.5 acres), with a collective area of 1,000 km2 (390 sq mi). Latvia and the United States have signed treaties on investment, trade, and intellectual property protection and avoidance of double taxation.[162][163]. The Young Latvian (Latvian: Jaunlatvieši) movement laid the groundwork for nationalism from the middle of the century, many of its leaders looking to the Slavophiles for support against the prevailing German-dominated social order. In 1282, Riga, and later the cities of Cēsis, Limbaži, Koknese and Valmiera, became part of the Hanseatic League. [122] Latvia held the Presidency of the Council of the European Union in the first half of 2015. [212] Rupjmaize is a dark bread made from rye, considered the national staple.[213][214]. Representing 10.2% of Latvia's total foreign direct investment, American companies invested $127 million in 1999. [67] [citation needed], In the post-war period, Latvia was made to adopt Soviet farming methods. The Baltic Council is the joint forum of the interparliamentary Baltic Assembly (BA) and the intergovernmental Baltic Council of Ministers (BCM). Municipal roads in Latvia totals 30 439 km of roads and 8039 km of streets. The University of Daugavpils is another significant centre of education. In a typical Latvian landscape, a mosaic of vast forests alternates with fields, farmsteads, and pastures. Amber, fossilized tree resin, is one of Latvia's most important cultural symbols. [93] There are 706 specially state-level protected natural areas in Latvia: four national parks, one biosphere reserve, 42 nature parks, nine areas of protected landscapes, 260 nature reserves, four strict nature reserves, 355 nature monuments, seven protected marine areas and 24 microreserves. [187] According to the Central Election Commission, 74.8% voted against, 24.9% voted for and the voter turnout was 71.1%. Approximately 30,000 performers altogether participate in the event. The Soviets reoccupied the country in 1944–1945, and further deportations followed as the country was collectivised [citation needed] They developed distinct cultural heritage, characterised by both Latvian and German influences. Latvia has pleasant weather in summer and it gets pretty cold in winter. Paul Krugman, the Nobel Laureate in economics for 2008, wrote in his New York Times Op-Ed column on 15 December 2008: The most acute problems are on Europe's periphery, where many smaller economies are experiencing crises strongly reminiscent of past crises in Latin America and Asia: Latvia is the new Argentina[167]. Former Latvian basketball club Rīgas ASK won the Euroleague tournament three times in a row before becoming defunct. Latvia's population has been multiethnic for centuries, though the demographics shifted dramatically in the 20th century due to the World Wars, the emigration and removal of Baltic Germans, the Holocaust, and occupation by the Soviet Union. [citation needed] Swap your heavy winter boots for a pair of glittering heals at … Ice hockey is usually considered the most popular sport in Latvia. The Latvian climate is maritime and temperate in nature, with cool summers and wet, relatively moderate winters. After the Polish–Swedish War, northern Livonia (including Vidzeme) came under Swedish rule. They promoted Latvian culture and encouraged Latvians to take part in cultural activities. [124][131], Approximately 206,000 non-citizens [132]– including stateless persons – have limited access to some political rights – only citizens are allowed to participate in parliamentary or municipal elections, although there are no limitations in regards to joining political parties or other political organizations. Average temperatures in winter are reasonably mild, ranging in January from -2.8°C in Liepaja, on the western coast, to … [37] Together with southern Estonia, these conquered areas formed the crusader state that became known as Terra Mariana or Livonia. From the age of 40 – more female. The average climate figure for Latvia is an 6,9. Under Swedish and largely German rule, western Latvia adopted Lutheranism as its main religion. [citation needed], Latvia operates Inčukalns underground gas storage facility, one of the largest underground gas storage facilities in Europe and the only one in the Baltic states. English is also widely accepted in Latvia in business and tourism. Innovation and rising productivity led to rapid growth of the economy, but it soon suffered from the effects of the Great Depression. [55] A week later, on 1 September 1939, Germany and on 17 September, the Soviet Union invaded Poland. They have no citizenship of any country, and cannot vote in Latvia. While it is now required that all school students learn Latvian, schools also include English, German, French and Russian in their curricula. [154] In November 2012, the three countries agreed to create a joint military staff in 2013. [148] Since 1996 more than 3600 military personnel have participated in international operations,[140] of whom 7 soldiers perished. [citation needed], Privatisation in Latvia is almost complete. Arable land is spotted with birch groves and wooded clusters, which afford a habitat for numerous plants and animals. The Soviets immediately began to reinstate the Soviet system. Apart from road and railway connections, Ventspils is also linked to oil extraction fields and transportation routes of Russian Federation via system of two pipelines from Polotsk, Belarus. Unique geological conditions at Inčukalns and other locations in Latvia are particularly suitable for underground gas storage.[178]. [34] By 900 AD, four distinct Baltic tribes inhabited Latvia: Curonians, Latgalians, Selonians, Semigallians (in Latvian: kurši, latgaļi, sēļi and zemgaļi), as well as the Finnic tribe of Livonians (lībieši) speaking a Finnic language. [19] Latvian and Lithuanian are the only two surviving Baltic languages. After centuries of Swedish, Polish-Lithuanian and Russian rule, a rule mainly executed by the Baltic German aristocracy, the Republic of Latvia was established on 18 November 1918 when it broke away from the Russian Empire and declared independence in the aftermath of World War I. [56]:32, After the conclusion of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, most of the Baltic Germans left Latvia by agreement between Ulmanis' government and Nazi Germany under the Heim ins Reich programme. The four seasons are of near-equal length. Get the forecast for today, tonight & tomorrow's weather for Riga, Rīga, Latvia. The Köppen-Geiger climate classification is Dfb. May *affiliate links: find out how we are funded and why this helps us remain free to use. In the summer of 1988, a national movement, coalescing in the Popular Front of Latvia, was opposed by the Interfront. How sunny is it in Latvia in December? There are normally 1 hour of bright sunshine each day in Riga, Latvia in December - that's 12% of daylight hours. The average sea temperature around Riga, Latvia in December is 1°C. ["'The good Swedish times' in Latvian historiography: from the late 18th century to the 1970s"], CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (. Its largest lake, Lubāns, has an area of 80.7 km2 (31.2 sq mi), its deepest lake, Drīdzis, is 65.1 m (214 ft) deep. XX V.). An internal document of 18 March 1987, near the end of communist rule, spoke of an active membership that had shrunk to only 25,000 in Latvia, but the faith has since experienced a revival. The Latvian SSR, along with the other Baltic Republics was allowed greater autonomy, and in 1988, the old pre-war Flag of Latvia flew again, replacing the Soviet Latvian flag as the official flag in 1990. A full member of the Eurozone, it began using the euro as its currency on 1 January 2014, replacing the Latvian lats. Humidity: 80%. Hi/Low, RealFeel®, precip, radar, & everything you need to be ready for the day, commute, and weekend! [citation needed] In Latvia, the Swedish period is generally remembered as positive; serfdom was eased, a network of schools was established for the peasantry, and the power of the regional barons was diminished. In late 2018 the National Archives of Latvia released a full alphabetical index of some 10,000 people recruited as agents or informants by the Soviet KGB. In the month of december, the mean temperature in Riga is 36°F (maximum temperature is 38°F and minimum temperature is 32°F). [citation needed], During these two centuries Latvia experienced economic and construction boom – ports were expanded (Riga became the largest port in the Russian Empire), railways built; new factories, banks, and a University were established; many residential, public (theatres and museums), and school buildings were erected; new parks formed; and so on. [68] This operation had the desired effect of reducing the anti Soviet partisan activity. [39] The first German settlers were knights from northern Germany and citizens of northern German towns who brought their Low German language to the region, which shaped many loanwords in the Latvian language. Latvia: Seven-day weather forecast. [65] Most sources count 200,000 to 250,000 refugees leaving Latvia, with perhaps as many as 80,000 to 100,000 of them recaptured by the Soviets or, during few months immediately after the end of war,[66] returned by the West. Winter is cold and gray, with frequent snowfalls, though usually not abundant. Last updated: Sa, 12 Dec, 14:57 GMT. For example, one of the most popular celebrations is Jāņi, a pagan celebration of the summer solstice—which Latvians celebrate on the feast day of St. John the Baptist. In the 23rd block of the Vorverker cemetery, a monument was erected after the Second World War for the people of Latvia, who had died in Lübeck from 1945 to 1950. [164][2] The largest groups as of 2011[update] were: In the Eurobarometer Poll 2010, 38% of Latvian citizens responded that "they believe there is a God", while 48% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 11% stated that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God, or life force". In 1944, part of the Latvian territory once more came under Soviet control. [37] Riga became an important point of east–west trading[37] and formed close cultural links with Western Europe. The prices of real estate, which were at some points growing by approximately 5% a month, were long perceived to be too high for the economy, which mainly produces low-value goods and raw materials. In 1897, 61.2% of the rural population had been landless; by 1936, that percentage had been reduced to 18%. All Year Climate & Weather Averages in Riga. Summers are usually warm and sunny, with cool evenings and nights. [44][45], Several important cultural changes occurred during this time. It has 44 diplomatic and consular missions and maintains 34 embassies and 9 permanent representations abroad. The president is elected by the Saeima in a separate election, also held every four years. Latvia is a developed country with an advanced, high-income economy [27][28] and ranks 39th in the Human Development Index. Opera – shine bright like a diamond. [215] Dinamo Riga is the country's strongest hockey club, playing in the Kontinental Hockey League. [citation needed], Several species of flora and fauna are considered national symbols. [78], However, the central power in Moscow continued to regard Latvia as a Soviet republic in 1990 and 1991. [citation needed] There also developed a growing urban proletariat and an increasingly influential Latvian bourgeoisie. [2] As of 2004 there were more than 600 Latvian neopagans, Dievturi (The Godskeepers), whose religion is based on Latvian mythology. Transit between Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan as well as other Asian countries and the West is large. View Full Yearly Averages . Latvia has ratified the international Washington, Bern, and Ramsare conventions. "Lettonia" redirects here. Since Latvia had maintained a well-developed infrastructure and educated specialists, Moscow decided to base some of the Soviet Union's most advanced manufacturing in Latvia. State administrators were liquidated and replaced by Soviet cadres. Russification began in Latgale after the Polish led the January Uprising in 1863: this spread to the rest of what is now Latvia by the 1880s. The weather and climate of Latvia is suitable for a winter sports.. [156] Following the introduction of the Euro, Eurobarometer surveys in January 2014 showed support for the Euro to be around 53%, close to the European average. [69] Some managed to escape arrest and joined the partisans. [100] In 2016 Latvia used 6.4 global hectares of biocapacity per person - their ecological footprint of consumption. By 1959 about 400,000 Russian settlers arrived and the ethnic Latvian population had fallen to 62%.[72]. The Evangelical Lutheran Church, with an estimated 600,000 members in 1956, was affected most adversely. Winters have average temperatures of −6 °C (21 °F) and are characterized by stable snow cover, bright sunshine, and short days. Latvia participates in several NATO Centres of Excellence: Civil-Military Co-operation in the Netherlands, Cooperative Cyber Defence in Estonia and Energy Security in Lithuania. Oct [32], Around 3000 BC, the proto-Baltic ancestors of the Latvian people settled on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. Latvia has 1,957,200 inhabitants[18] and a territory of 64,589 km2 (24,938 sq mi). [211], Grey peas and ham are generally considered as staple foods of Latvians. Latvia has a total area of 64,559 km (24,926 sq mi) of which 62,157 km (23,999 sq mi) land, 18,159 km (7,011 sq mi) agricultural land, 34,964 km (13,500 sq mi) forest land and 2,402 km (927 sq mi) inland water. [79], The Republic of Latvia declared the end of the transitional period and restored full independence on 21 August 1991, in the aftermath of the failed Soviet coup attempt. [120] The Enhanced Partnership in Northern Europe or e-Pine is the U.S. Department of State diplomatic framework for co-operation with the Nordic-Baltic countries. [49], During the 19th century, the social structure changed dramatically. [21] It ended with the Declaration on the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia on 4 May 1990 and restoring de facto independence on 21 August 1991. The festival takes place at the Latvian National Opera, the Great Guild, and the Great and Small Halls of the Dzintari Concert Hall. Real GDP growth of 5.5 percent in 2011 was underpinned by export growth and a recovery in domestic demand. Daytime temperatures usually reach 0°C in Riga, Latvia in December, falling to -5°C at night. [47] Half the residents of Riga were killed by plague in 1710–1711. Virtually all of the previously state-owned small and medium companies have been privatised, leaving only a small number of politically sensitive large state companies. The total length of its land boundary is 1,368 km (850 mi), of which 343 km (213 mi) is shared with Estonia to the north, 276 km (171 mi) with the Russian Federation to the east, 161 km (100 mi) with Belarus to the southeast and 588 km (365 mi) with Lithuania to the south. The growth momentum has continued into 2012 and 2013 despite deteriorating external conditions, and the economy is expected to expand by 4.1 percent in 2014. Jun Do not forget to take with you warm clothes! The summer season is usually dry with occasional rainstorms. In 1944, when Soviet military advances reached Latvia, heavy fighting took place in Latvia between German and Soviet troops, which ended in another German defeat. [citation needed], In the 12th century in the territory of Latvia, there were lands with their rulers: Vanema, Ventava, Bandava, Piemare, Duvzare, Upmale, Sēlija, Koknese, Jersika, Tālava and Adzele. Latvia has a long basketball tradition, as the Latvian national basketball team won the first ever EuroBasket in 1935 and silver medals in 1939, after losing the final to Lithuania by one point. [123], According to the reports by Freedom House and the US Department of State, human rights in Latvia are generally respected by the government:[124][125] Latvia is ranked above-average among the world's sovereign states in democracy,[126] press freedom,[127] privacy[128] and human development. [56]:64[56]:56, Under German occupation, Latvia was administered as part of Reichskommissariat Ostland. Winds SSE at 10 to 15 mph. August is the most wet month. [106] The most senior civil servants are the thirteen Secretaries of State. Statistical regions of Latvia, established in accordance with the EU Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics, duplicate this division, but divides Riga region into two parts with the capital alone being a separate region. [73] Latvia manufactured trains, ships, minibuses, mopeds, telephones, radios and hi-fi systems, electrical and diesel engines, textiles, furniture, clothing, bags and luggage, shoes, musical instruments, home appliances, watches, tools and equipment, aviation and agricultural equipment and long list of other goods. [36] The first missionaries, sent by the Pope, sailed up the Daugava River in the late 12th century, seeking converts. This program allows investors to get Latvia residence permit by investing at least €250,000 in property or in an enterprise with at least 50 employees and an annual turnover of at least €10M. [172] Free port of Ventspils is one of the busiest ports in the Baltic states. Sep The first snow there is only at the end of November – beginning of December and it melts too fast so it’s always wet here at the late fall. [85], The total length of Latvia's boundary is 1,866 km (1,159 mi). [citation needed] Thus, the mostly peasant local pagan heritage was preserved, partly merging with Christian traditions. High Temp: 74 °F. Latvijas vēstures atlants, Jānis Turlajs, page 12, Karšu izdevniecība Jāņa sēta, H. Strods, "'Dobrye Shvedskie Vremena' v Istoriografii Latvii (Konets XVIII V. – 70-E Gg. In general, the country has bright and warm summers and reasonably cold winters. This led to the development of the Amber Road. Pro-independence Popular Front of Latvia candidates gained a two-thirds majority in the Supreme Council in the March 1990 democratic elections. Weather in February » Russia ended its military presence by completing its troop withdrawal in 1994 and shutting down the Skrunda-1 radar station in 1998. [168] Latvia's current account, which had been in deficit by 27% in late 2006 was in surplus in February 2010. Latvia is a unitary state, currently divided into 110 one-level municipalities (Latvian: novadi) and 9 republican cities (Latvian: republikas pilsētas) with their own city council and administration: Daugavpils, Jēkabpils, Jelgava, Jūrmala, Liepāja, Rēzekne, Riga, Valmiera, and Ventspils. 70% percent of the mires are untouched by civilization, and they are a refuge for many rare species of plants and animals. [74] The population of Latvia reached its peak in 1990 at just under 2.7 million people. The only other airport handling regular commercial flights is Liepāja International Airport. [54], Early in the morning of 24 August 1939, the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany signed a 10-year non-aggression pact, called the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. By 29 June Riga was reached and with Soviet troops killed, captured or retreating, Latvia was left under the control of German forces by early July. [93], Latvia's national parks are Gauja National Park in Vidzeme (since 1973),[95] Ķemeri National Park in Zemgale (1997), Slītere National Park in Kurzeme (1999), and Rāzna National Park in Latgale (2007). [216], Latvia has participated successfully in both Winter and Summer Olympics. The University of Latvia and Riga Technical University are two major universities in the country, both established on the basis of[clarification needed] Riga Polytechnical Institute and located in Riga. In the following days of the week the temperature will reach 0.. +5 degrees °C, on the coast up to +7 °C, and only a few nights will it fall below zero in Vidzeme and Latgale. However, by 2010, commentators[168][169] noted signs of stabilisation in the Latvian economy. [195], Latvian policy in science and technology has set out the long-term goal of transitioning from labor-consuming economy to knowledge-based economy. [171], The transport sector is around 14% of GDP. [168] Kenneth Orchard, senior analyst at Moody's Investors Service argued that: The strengthening regional economy is supporting Latvian production and exports, while the sharp swing in the current account balance suggests that the country's 'internal devaluation' is working. In 2011, there were 416 religious Jews, 319 Muslims and 102 Hindus. Most transit traffic uses these and half the cargo is crude oil and oil products. [181], As of March 2011, Latvians form about 62.1% of the population, while 26.9% are Russians, Belarusians 3.3%, Ukrainians 2.2%, Poles 2.2%, Lithuanians 1.2%, Jews 0.3%, Romani people 0.3%, Germans 0.1%, Estonians 0.1% and others 1.3%. [199] It is among the lowest-ranked healthcare systems in Europe, due to excessive waiting times for treatment, insufficient access to the latest medicines, and other factors. Interparliamentary co-operation between the Baltic Assembly and Nordic Council was signed in 1992 and since 2006 annual meetings are held as well as regular meetings on other levels. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia became an autonomous Russian province (the Courland Governorate) in 1795, bringing all of what is now Latvia into the Russian Empire. [78], In spite of this, 73% of all Latvian residents confirmed their strong support for independence on 3 March 1991, in a non-binding advisory referendum. Popular discontent exploded in the 1905 Russian Revolution, which took a nationalist character in the Baltic provinces. Heritage, characterised by both Latvian and German influences warmest year in the 19th,... 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